New Media and Privacy the Privacy Paradox in the Digital World: I Will Not Disclose My Data. Actually, I Will ... It Depends

Andrea Carignani, Vanessa Gemmo


The inconsistency of privacy attitudes and privacy behavior is often referred to as the “privacy paradox”. In this study, we analyze the privacy paradox through a methodology that allows investigating user behavior in relation to transferring personal data or not in a real context. Our intention is to investigate privacy as a negotiation by verifying whether the incongruous consumer behavior known as the privacy paradox also occurs in a real and blind context, and how this is affected by the data commoditization trend.The classical methodology in these types of studies is based on questionnaires administered to participants in an experiment and the questions relate to their intention to disclose their personal information in different hypothetical scenarios. In all these types of research, the respondents know they are participating in an experiment without any real gains or losses as a result of their actions. To understand how users behave when facing the disclosure or otherwise of personal data in a real context, we analyzed ex-post data from different digital campaigns through one of the most frequently used data vault platforms. Via this platform, a company can configure a series of user actions by rewarding them for every action with a discount on a product. Through this platform, we therefore had the opportunity to investigate how real users in real contexts manage the exchange of personal data for discounts on one or more products.


Privacy; Privacy behavior; Privacy paradox; Decision-making; Privacy concerns; Online privacy; Big Data.

Full Text:



Fortes, Nuno; Rita, Paulo. “Privacy Concerns And Online Purchasing Behaviour: Towards An Integrated Model”. Ermbe. Vol. 22, Nº 3, pp. 167-176. DOI: 10.1016/j.iedeen.2016.04.002

K. Sheehan,M., Hoy “Dimensions of privacy concern among online consumers”. Journal of Public Policy and Marketing, 19 (2000), pp. 62-73

Acquisti, A. and J. Grossklags. “What can behavioral economics teach us about privacy?” In S. G. C. L. Alessandro Acquisti, Sabrina De Capitani di Vimercati (Ed.), Digital Privacy: Theory, Technologies and Practices, pp. 363–377. Auerbach Publications (Taylor and Francis Group).

Belanger, F., and Crossler, R.E.. “Privacy in the digital age: A review of information privacy research in information systems”. MIS Quarterly, Vol. 35 N. 4, pp. 1017-1041.

Smith, J. (2001) Information privacy and marketing: What the US should (and shouldn't) learn from Europe, California Management Review, Vol 43, No. 2 Winter 2001.

Potzsch, S. (2009) Privacy awareness: A means to solve the privacy paradox? IFIP AICT, 2009.

Smith, H. J., Dinev, T., and Xu, H. (2011). Information privacy research: An interdisciplinary review, MIS Quarterly, Vol.35, No. 4, pp. 989-1015.

Print References


W.K. Chen. Linear Networks and Systems. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 1993, pp. 123-35.

Book Chapters

J.E. Bourne. “Synthetic structure of industrial plastics,” in Plastics, 2nd ed., vol. 3. J. Peters, Ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1964, pp.15-67.

Article in a Journal

G. Pevere. “Infrared Nation.” The International Journal of Infrared Design, vol. 33, pp. 56-99, Jan. 1979.

Articles from Conference Proceedings (published)

D.B. Payne and H.G. Gunhold. “Digital sundials and broadband technology,” in Proc. IOOC-ECOC, 1986, pp. 557-998.

Papers Presented at Conferences (unpublished)

B. Brandli and M. Dick. “Engineering names and concepts,” presented at the 2nd Int. Conf. Engineering Education, Frankfurt, Germany, 1999.


E.E. Rebecca. “Alternating current fed power supply.” U.S. Patent 7 897 777, Nov. 3, 1987.

Electronic References


S. Calmer. (1999, June 1). Engineering and Art. (2nd edition). [On-line]. 27(3). Available: [May 21, 2003].


A. Paul. (1987, Oct.). “Electrical properties of flying machines.” Flying Machines. [On- line]. 38(1), pp. 778-998. Available: www.flyingmachjourn/properties/ [Dec. 1,


World Wide Web

M. Duncan. “Engineering Concepts on Ice. Internet:, Oct. 25, 2000 [Nov. 29, 2003].

Odd Sources


B. Bart. “Going Faster.” Globe and Mail (Oct. 14, 2002), sec. A p.1. “Telehealth in Alberta.” Toronto Star (Nov. 12, 2003), sec. G pp. 1-3.

Dissertations and Theses

S. Mack. “Desperate Optimism.” M.A. thesis, University of Calgary, Canada, 2000.


S. Maw. Engg 251. Class Lecture, Topic: “Speed skating.” ICT 224, Faculty of Engineering, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Oct. 31, 2003.


J. Aston. “RE: new location, okay?” Personal e-mail (Jul. 3, 2003).

Internet - Newsgroup

G.G. Gavin. “Climbing and limb torsion #3387,” USENET: sci.climb.torsion, Apr. 19, 2000 [Oct. 4, 2002].

* if you can’t find this information, exclude it.

Exact page number References

Johnson suggests that citing will lead to a decrease in being cited for plagiarism [1:28- 29].

The [1] refers to the numbered reference

And the 28-29 refers to the pages being cited.


  • There are currently no refbacks.





About IJC | Privacy PolicyTerms & Conditions | Contact Us | DisclaimerFAQs 

IJC is published by (GSSRR).