The Need for Marker-Less Computer Vision Techniques for Human Gait Analysis on Video Surveillance to Detect Concealed Firearms

Henry Muchiri, Prof. Ismail Ateya, Prof. Gregory Wanyembi


Crimes involving the use of firearms have been on the increase in the past few years. One of the measures adopted to prevent these crimes is the use of CCTV operators at video surveillance centers to detect persons carrying concealed firearms on their bodies by monitoring their behavior. This paper has found that this technique has challenges associated with human weaknesses and errors. A review of the current attempts to automate video surveillance for concealed firearm detection has found that they have the limitation that the techniques can only be employed on stationary and cooperative persons. This makes them inappropriate for real-life surveillance. This paper highlights the need for automated video surveillance solutions that can detect persons carrying concealed firearms when they are not stationary and aware of the scanning process. We further explore automated behavioral analysis and specifically gait analysis as a possible technique for concealed firearm detection on video surveillance. Lastly, the paper highlights the possibility and viability of human gait analysis using marker-less computer vision techniques for detecting persons carrying firearms on their waist line.


Computer Vision; Concealed Firearm Detection; Human Gait Analysis; Video Surveillance.

Full Text:



D. Gowsikhaa, S. Abirami and R. Baskaran, "Automated human behavior analysis from surveillance videos: a survey," Artificial Intelligence Review, vol. 42, no. 4, p. 747–765, 2012.

L. Kyalo, "A report of analysis on armed crimes in East Africa community countries: Regional Centre on Small Arms," 13 May 2016. [Online]. Available: [Accessed 15 July 2016].

S. Phil, "The realities of Kenya crime," 22 November 2015. [Online]. Available: on 22nd November, 2015. [Accessed 5 April 2016].

C. Nelson, P. Kantor and B. Nakamura, "Experimental Designs for Testing Metal Detectors at a Large Sports Stadium," in IEEE, Waltham, 2015.

J. Ploch, T. Děkan and J. Zýka, "Design the New Concept of Security Check at Airport with Comprehends Trend of Passengers Behaviour Analyses," Journal of Tourism & Services, pp. 45-63, 2015.

E. M. Upadhyay and N. K. Rana, "Exposure fusion for concealed weapon detection," in Devices, Circuits and Systems (ICDCS), 2014 2nd International Conference on, Coimbatore, 2014.

R. K. Tiwari and G. K. Verma, "A Computer Vision based Framework for Visual Gun Detection using Harris Interest Point Detector," Elsevier B.V, vol. 54, pp. 703-712, 2015., "man-with-concealed-carry-stops-slaughter," 25 March 2015. [Online]. Available: [Accessed 6 March 2018].

B. Y. Gopinath, V. S. Krishna and G. Srilatha, "Concealed Weapon Detection Using Image Processing," International Journal of Electronics & Communication Technology, vol. 5, no. Spl-3, pp. 13-17, 2014.

S. M. Hegde, K. Shivaprasad and N. Neh, "Imaging for Concealed Weapon Detection," in 2015 National Conference “Electronics, Signals, Communication and Optimization", 2015.

N. M. Sirakov, "Firearms identification through partonomy," in SPIE Conference, Maryland, 2015.

T. Darker, Blechko and A. G. Gale, "The Role of Emotion Recognition from NonVerbal Behaviour in Detection of Concealed Firearm Carrying," in HUMAN FACTORS and ERGONOMICS SOCIETY 53rd ANNUAL CONFERENCE, Loughborough, 2009.

H. Gunes, C. Shan, S. Chen and Y. Tian, Emotion Recognition: A Pattern Analysis Approach, Canada: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2015.

B. C. Amanze, C. C. Ononiwu, C. B. Nwoke and A. I. Amaefule, "Video Surveillance And Monitoring System For Examination Malpractice," International Journal Of Engineering And Computer Science, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 15560-15571, 2016.

J. Suss, F. Vachon, D. Lafond and S. Tremblay, "Don’t Overlook the Human! Applying the Principles of Cognitive Systems Engineering to the Design of Intelligent Video Surveillance Systems," in 2015 12th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Video and Signal Based Surveillance (AVSS) , Karlsruhe, 2015., "CCTV Operator," 5 April 2017. [Online]. Available: [Accessed 8 March 2018].

T. SenthilKimar and G. Narmatha, "Suspicious Human Activity Detection in Classroom Examiniation," Springer Science+Business Media B.V, vol. 412, pp. 99-105, 2016.

K. Rahangdale and M. Kokate, "Event Detection Using Background Subtraction For Surveillance Systems," International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology, vol. 3, no. 01, pp. 1300-1304, 2016.

Z. Liu, Z. Xue, D. S. Forsyth and R. Laganiere, "Concealed Weapon Detection: A Data Fusion Perspective," Journal of Aerospace Computing Information and Communication, vol. 7, no. 7, pp. 196-209, 2010.

P. Pratihar and K. A. Yadav, "Detection Techniques for Human Safety from Concealed weapon and Harmful EDS," International Journal of Electronics & Communication Technology, pp. 71-76, 2014.

X. Zhang, . N. Bakis, Y. M. Ibrahim, S. Wu, M. Kagioglou, G. Aouad and E. Trucco, "Automating progress measurement of construction projects," Science Direct, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 294-301, 2009.

M. Grega, S. Łach and R. Sieradzki, "Automated Recognition of Firearms in Surveillance Video," in IEEE International Multi-Disciplinary Conference on Cognitive Methods in Situation Awareness and Decision Support (CogSIMA), San Diego, 2013.

R. Olmos, S. Tabik and F. Herrera, "Automatic Handgun Detection Alarm in Videos Using Deep Learning," Neurocomputing, vol. 275, no. 290, pp. 66-72, 2018.

T. R. Edward, Beautiful Evidence, Kansas: Graphics Press, 2006.

N. C. Meehan and C. Strange, "Behavioral Indicators of Legal and Illegal Gun Carrying," Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC, 2015.

Y. Makihara, H. Mannami and Y. Yagi, "Gait Analysis of Gender and Age Using a Large-Scale Multi-View Gait Database," in Computer Vision – ACCV 2010 , Taipei, 2011.

J. J. Robilliard, T. Pfau and A. M. Wilson, "Gait characterisation and classification in horses," The Journal of Experimental Biology , pp. 187-197, 2006.

K. Porter, "Characteristics of the armed individual," U.S. Secret Service Publication, Washington, 2010.

International Association of Law Enforcement, "Proceedings from: Firearms Instructors," Nashville, 2012.

T. W. Lu and C. F. Chang, "Biomechanics of human movement and its clinical applications," kaohsiung journal of medical sciences, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 13-25, 2012.

S. Yousefi, F. A. Kondor and H. Li, "Tracking Fingers in 3D space for Mobile interaction," in The Second International Workshop on Mobile Multimedia Processing (WMMP 2010), Instanbul, 2010.

I. Afiah, H. Nakashima, P. Loh and S. Muraki, "An exploratory investigation of changes in gait parameters with age in elderly Japanese women," SpringerPlus, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 1-19, 2016.

Sonipa and Rohtak, "A review of Gait Cycle and its Parameters," International Journal of Computational Engineering & Management, vol. 13, pp. 78-83, 2011.

S. B. O'Sullivan, T. J. Schmitz and G. Fulk, Physical Rehabilitation, 6e, F.A. Davis Company, 2014.

M. M. Violeta, G. M. Violeta, M. Mircea and S. A. Elena, "Current Motion Capture Technologies used in Human Motion Analysis," in Research & Innovation in Engineering, Braşov, 2014.

C. Prakash, K. Gupta, A. Mittal, R. Kumar and V. Laxmi, "Passive Marker-based Optical System for Gait Kinematics for lower extremity," in International Conference on Advanced Computing Technologies and applications (ICACTA-2015), Mumbai, 2015.

M. Dawson, D. R. Kisku, P. Gupta, K. J. Sing and W. Li, Developing Next-Generation Countermeasures for Homeland Security Threat Prevention, IGI Global, 2016.

P. Mishra and G. P. Saroha, "A study on video surveillance system for Object Detection and Tracking," in 2016 3rd International Conference on Computing for Sustainable Global Development (INDIACom) , Delhi, 2016.

W. Li, D. R. Kisku, P. Gupta, J. . K. Sing and M. Dawson, Developing Next-Generation Countermeasures for Homeland Security Threat Prevention, IGI Global, 2016.

S. H. Parekh, D. G. Thakore and U. K. Jaliya, "A Survey on Object Detection and Tracking Methods," International Journal of Innovative Research in Computer and Communication Engineering, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 2970-2978, 2014.

A. B. Sargano, P. Angelov and Z. Habib, "A Comprehensive Review on Handcrafted and Learning-Based Action Representation Approaches for Human Activity Recognition," applied sciences, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 1-37, 2017.

Y. LeCun , Y. Bengio and G. Hinton, "Deep learning," PubMed, p. 436–444, 2015.

A. Hassanien, M. M. Fouad, A. A. Manaf, M. Zamani, R. Ahmad and J. Kacprzyk, Multimedia Forensics and Security: Foundations, Innovations, and Applications, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing AG, 2016.

F. Castrol, M. J. Marín-Jiménez, N. Guil and N. P. de la Blanca, "Automatic learning of gait signatures for people identification," in Springer, Cham, Cadiz, 2016.

C. KalaiSelvan and A. S. Raja, "Robust Gait-Based Gender Classification for Video Surveillance Applications," Applied Mathematics & Information Sciences, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 1207-1215, 2017.

M. Nabila, A. I. Mohammed and B. J. Yousra, "Gait-based Human Age Classification Using a Silhouette Model," IET Biometrics, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 116 - 124, 2018.

M. Nieto-Hidalgo, F. J. Ferr´andez-Pastor, R. . J. Valdivieso-Sarabia, J. ´. Mora-Pascual and J. M. Garc´ıa-Chamizo, "Gait Analysis Using Computer Vision Based on Cloud Platform and Mobile Device," Mobile Information Systems, vol. 2018, pp. 1-11, 2018.

M. Nieto-Hidalgo and J. M. García-Chamizo, "Classification of Pathologies Using a Vision Based Feature Extraction," in Springer, Cham, Philadelphia, 2017.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Comments on this article

View all comments





About IJC | Privacy PolicyTerms & Conditions | Contact Us | DisclaimerFAQs 

IJC is published by (GSSRR).