Evaluation of Similarity Metrics Under the Context of an Autonomous Reactive System
Currently, in the field of robotics, institutions and researchers are working on the design and development of autonomous navigation systems on robots for dynamic environments. The most advanced implementations of autonomous behaviors are found on vehicles or wheeled devices, allowing them to move on controlled environments and even on rough terrain. In this paper, it is presented the design of an autonomous reactive system for humanoid robots. This system requires to know the current state of the robot, during a specific activity, to make the right reactive action for a specific situation. In the context of inquiring the current state of the robot, we consider the implementation of a knowledge base populated with diverse states of the joints and their possible reactive actions. To recover the possible reactive actions from the knowledge base, it is required to search for the current state of the robot in the knowledge base. However, this process may incur in high computational cost depending on the size of the knowledge base. Therefore, in this work, we carried out a comparative study of six similarity metrics, with the objective of identifying the metric that offers the best computational time. In these studies, it is identified that the metrics with lower mathematical complexity showed the best results. Additionally, we used Wilcoxon and Friedman statistics tests to assess the performance of the similarity metrics. Finally, we included an analysis of the characteristics and functionality of several similarity metrics, which showed that some of them are not suitable in the context of our proposal. On the other hand, other metrics were identified as viable and with potential for future works.
. K. L. Flores Rodríguez and F. Trujillo Romero, "Desarrollo de un Sistema Lógico Difuso para el Control de la Locomoción Bípeda de un Robot Humanoide NAO," Research in Computing Science, no. 113, pp. 181-194, 2016.
. R. C. Luo, K. C. Lee and A. Spallanzani, "Humanoid robot walking pattern generation based on five-mass with angular momentum model," IEEE 25th International Symposium on Industrial Electronics (ISIE), Vols. 2016-November, pp. 375-380, 2016.
. J. Demey, J. L. Vicente Villardon, J. A. Di Rienzo and F. Casanoves, Valoración y Análisis de la Diversidad Funcional y su Relación con los Servicios Ecosistémicos, vol. V, CATIE, 2015, pp. 47-59.
. J. Songlei, L. Cao, L. Kai, and H. Gao, "Unsupervised Coupled Metric Similarity," IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering, vol. 30, no. 9, pp. 1810-1823, 2018.
. A. Dosovitskiy and T. Brox, "Generating Images with Perceptual Similarity Metrics based on Deep Networks," ArXiv Preprint ArXiv: 1602.02644, vol. 1, pp. 1-9, 2016.
. B. Moradabadi and M. Reza Meybodi, "Link prediction based on temporal similarity metrics using continuous action set learning automata," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, vol. 460, pp. 361-373, 2016.
. D. Manandhar and K. H. Yap, "Feature Repetitiveness Similarity Metrics in Visual Search," IEEE Signal Processing Letters, vol. 24, no. 9, p. 1368–1372, 2017.
. R. Santos, B. Martins, and P. Murrieta-Flores, "Learning to combine multiple string similarity metrics for effective toponym matching," International Journal of Digital Earth, pp. 1-26, 2017.
. M. Naveau, M. Kudruss, O. Stasse, C. Kirches, K. Mombaur, and P. Souères, "A Reactive Walking Pattern Generator Based on Nonlinear Model Predictive Control," IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters, pp. 10-17, 2017.
. Z. Yu, X. Chen, Q. Huang, W. Zhang, L. Meng, W. Zhang and J. Gao, "Gait Planning of Omnidirectional Walk on Inclined Ground for Biped Robots," IEEE Transactions On Systems, Man, And Cybernetics, p. 10, 2015.
. Y.-D. Hong and B. Lee, "Experimental Study on Modifiable Walking Pattern Generation," Journal of Electrical Engineering & Technology, pp. 2368-2375, 2015.
. X. Zhang, J. Xiong, S. Weng, H. Li, M. Chen, Y. Gan, Q. Zhao, and Z. Xia, "A Modified Gait Planning Method for Biped Robot Based On Central Pattern Generators," International Conference on Information and Automation, pp. 1551-1555, 2015.
. E. López Iñesta, "Aprendizaje de similitudes entre pares de objetos mediante Clasificación Supervisada," Universidad de Valencia, Valencia, España, 2017.
. E. Krause, "Taxicab Geometry: An Adventure in Non-Euclidean Geometry," Dover Publications Inc., New York, 1986.
. N. Hazim, S. Mahmood, W. Esam, and M. Sahib, "Face Detection and Recognition Using Viola-Jones with PCA-LDA and Square Euclidean Distance," International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications, vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 371-377, 2016.
. A. Shawn and H. Ghassan, "Multi-Region Probabilistic Dice Similarity Coefﬁcient using the Aitchison Distance and Bipartite Graph Matching," arXiv, p. 9, 2015.
. D. Prokopenko, J. Hecker, E. Silverman, M. Pagano, M. Nothen, C. Dina, C. Lange, and H. Fier, "Utilizing the Jaccard index to reveal population stratification in sequencing data: a simulation study and an application to the 1000 Genomes Project," Bioinformatics, vol. 32, no. 9, pp. 1366-1372, 2016.
. P. Biswas and S. Pramanik, "Cosine Similarity Measure based multi-attribute decision-making with trapezoidal fuzzy neutrosophic numbers," Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, pp. 47-57, 2015.
. T. Ishigaki, T. Oda, Y. Liu, D. Elmazi, K. Matsuo and L. Barolli, "A Neural Network Based Intrusion Detection And User Identification System For TOR Networks: Performance Evaluation For Different Number Of Hidden Units Using Friedman Test," Journal of Mobile Multimedia, pp. 251-262, 2015.
. J. McDonald, "Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test," in 2Handbook of Biological Statistics, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 2015, pp. 186-189.
Authors who submit papers with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
- By submitting the processing fee, it is understood that the author has agreed to our terms and conditions which may change from time to time without any notice.
- It should be clear for authors that the Editor In Chief is responsible for the final decision about the submitted papers; have the right to accept\reject any paper. The Editor In Chief will choose any option from the following to review the submitted papers:A. send the paper to two reviewers, if the results were negative by one reviewer and positive by the other one; then the editor may send the paper for third reviewer or he take immediately the final decision by accepting\rejecting the paper. The Editor In Chief will ask the selected reviewers to present the results within 7 working days, if they were unable to complete the review within the agreed period then the editor have the right to resend the papers for new reviewers using the same procedure. If the Editor In Chief was not able to find suitable reviewers for certain papers then he have the right to reject the paper.
- Author will take the responsibility what so ever if any copyright infringement or any other violation of any law is done by publishing the research work by the author
- Before publishing, author must check whether this journal is accepted by his employer, or any authority he intends to submit his research work. we will not be responsible in this matter.
- If at any time, due to any legal reason, if the journal stops accepting manuscripts or could not publish already accepted manuscripts, we will have the right to cancel all or any one of the manuscripts without any compensation or returning back any kind of processing cost.
- The cost covered in the publication fees is only for online publication of a single manuscript.