A Dynamic Application Partitioning and Offloading Framework to Enhance the Capabilities of Transient Clouds Using Mobile Agents
Keywords:Mobile Cloud Computing, Code Partitioning and Offloading, Intelligent Agents, Multi-hop Ad-hoc Mesh Network
Mobile cloud computing has emerged as a prominent area of research, a natural extension of cloud computing that proposes to offer solutions for enhancing the capabilities of smart mobile devices commonly plagued by resource constraints. As one of its promising models, transient clouds aim to address the internet connectivity shortfall inherent in most solutions through the formation of ad hoc networks by devices in close proximity, then the offloading some computations (Cyber Foraging) to the created cloud. However, transient clouds, at their current state, have several limitations, concerning their expansion on a local network having a large number of devices and the management of the instability of the network due to the constant mobility of the devices. Another issue is the fact code partitioning and offloading are not addressed to fit the need of such networks, thereby rendering the distributed computing mechanism barely efficient for the Transient Cloud. In this study, we propose a transient cloud-based framework that exploits the use of multi-agent systems, enabling a dynamic partitioning and offloading of code, and facilitating the movement and the execution of code partition packets in a multi-hop ad-hoc mesh network. When created and deployed, these intelligent mobile agents operate independently or collaboratively and adapt to the continual entry and exit of devices in the neighbourhood. The integration of these trending concepts in distributed computing within a framework offers a new architecture for resource-sharing among cooperating devices that addresses the varied issues that arise in dynamic environments.
. Dewiani, M Baharuddin, M F B Gufran, S. Panggalo and Wardi, “Performance of Routing Protocol OLSR and BATMAN in Multi-hop and Mesh Ad Hoc Network on Raspberry Pi”, Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering (2020)
. Benjamin Sliwa, Christian Wietfeld and Stefan Falten, “Performance Evaluation and Optimization of B.A.T.M.A.N. V Routing for Aerial and Ground-based Mobile Ad-hoc Networks”, 978-1-7281-1217-6/19 IEEE (2019).
. Foundation for Intelligent Physical Agents. "FIPA Agent Management Support for Mobility Specification", document number dc00087c. Technical report, Geneva, Switzerland, May (2002).
. J. Ferber. "Multi-agent systems: an introduction to distributed artificial intelligence", volume 1. Addison-Wesley Reading. (1999).
. M. Kristensen, Scavenger: transparent development of efficient cyber foraging applications, in: Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications, PerCom (2015).
. Josh “m0nk” Thomas, Jeff “Stoker” Robble, Off Grid communications with Android: Meshing the mobile world, The MITRE Corporation Bedford, MA USA (2015).
. Abdullah Gani, Ejaz Ahmed, Ibrar Yaqoob, Muhammad Imran, Salimah Mokhtar and Sghaier Guizani, “Mobile ad hoc cloud: A survey”, Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing (2016).
. Boo-Kwang Park, HwiRim Byun and Young-Sik Jeong, “Mobile Agent Oriented Service for Ofﬂoading on Mobile Cloud Computing”, Advances in Computer Science and Ubiquitous Computing, Springer Nature Singapore (2017).
. Alison Johnson, Brandon Van Slyke, Mina Guirguis, Qijun Gu, Terry Penner, “Transient Clouds: Assignment and Collaborative Execution of Tasks on Mobile Devices”, Globecom 2014 – Symposium on Selected Areas in Communications: GC14 SAC Internet of Things, (2014).
. Agustin Rivera-Longoria, Alison Johnson, Brandon Van Slyke, Mina Guiguis, Lavanya Tammineni, Qijun Gu, Terry Penner, Thomas Langford, “Assignment and collaborative execution of tasks on transient clouds”, Institut Mines -Telecom and Springer-Verlag France SAS, 27, (2017).
. Ana Aguiar, Eduardo Soares, Pedro Brandão, Rui Prior, “Experimentation with MANETs of Smartphones”, arXiv:1702.04249v1 [cs.NI], (2017).
. Paul Baskett, Tiancheng Zhuang, and Yi Shang, “Managing Ad Hoc Networks of Smartphones”, International Journal of Information and Education Technology, Vol. 3, No. 5, (2013).
. Bharat Bhargava, Pelin Angin, “An Agent-based Optimization Framework for Mobile-Cloud Computing”, Journal of Wireless Mobile Networks, Ubiquitous Computing, and Dependable Applications, volume: 4, number: 2, pp. 1-17, (2013).
. Ichiro Satoh, “Book Chapter on Mobile Agents”, National Institute of Informatics, 2-1-2 Hitotsubashi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-8430, Japan, (2014).
. Manoj Jhuria, Shailendra Singh, “Improve Perfomance DSR Protocol by Application of Mobile Agent”, Fourth International Conference on Communication Systems and Network Technologies, (2014).
. Md Shahzamal, “Lightweight Mobile Ad-Hoc Routing Protocols for Smartphones”, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia, April (2018).
. Abdullah Gani, Ejaz Ahmed, Ibrar Yaqoob, Muhammad Imran, Salimah Mokhtar and Sghaier Guizani, “Mobile ad hoc cloud: A survey”, Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing, Wiley Online Library, (2016).
. Bindiya Bhatia, M. K. Somi, Parul Tomar, “Role of Mobile Agents in the Layered architecture of Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks”, International Journal of Computer Networks an Information Security, Volume 11, Page 37 – 45, (2015).
. D. B. Lange and M. Oshima. "Seven good reasons for mobile agents". Commun. ACM, ACM, vol. 42, 88-89. (1999).
. H. Tai and K. Kosaka. "The Aglets project". Commun. ACM, 42, 100- 101. (1999).
. M. Satyanarayanan, Mobile computing, Computer 26 81–82 (1993).
. C. Tham, D. Lange, J. White, M. Oshima, S. Virdhagriswaran, and K. Ono. "MASIF: The OMG Mobile Agent System Interoperability Facility". Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, 2(2): 117-129, June (1998).
. Mukul Manmohan Meghwal, Priyank Singh Hada, Ranjita Singh, Security Agents: A Mobile Agent based Trust Model for Cloud Computing, International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887), Volume 36– No.12 (2011).
. Alwesabi Ali , Almutewekel Abdullah, Okba Kazar, Implementation of Cloud Computing Approach Based on Mobile Agents, International Journal of Computer and Information Technology (ISSN: 2279 – 0764), Volume 02– Issue 06 (2013).
. Dijiang Huang, Jim Luo, Myong Kang, and Xinwen Zhang. Mobicloud: building secure cloud framework for mobile computing and communication. In Service Oriented System Engineering (SOSE), 2010 Fifth IEEE International Symposium on, pages 27–34. IEEE (2010).
. Andrius Aucinas, Mortier Sokol Kosta, Pan Hui and Xinwen Zhang, Thinkair: Dynamic resource allocation and parallel execution in the cloud for mobile code offloading. In INFOCOM, 2012 Proceedings IEEE, pages 945–953. IEEE (2012).
. A. Poggi, F. Bellifemine and G. Rimassa. "JADE: a FIPA2000 compliant agent development environment" .AGENTS ’01: Proceedings of the fifth international conference on Autonomous agents, 216-217. ACM (2001).
. M. Sharifi, O. Kashefi and S. Kafaie, “A survey and taxonomy of cyber foraging of mobile devices”, IEEE Communications Surveys Tutorials, 14(4):1231–1243 (2012).
. Aruna Balasubramanian, Alec Wolman, Dae-ki Cho, Eduardo Cuervo, Paramvir Bahl, Ranveer Chandra, and Stefan Saroiu, “Maui: making smartphones last longer with code offload”, In Proceedings of the 8th international conference on Mobile systems, applications, and services, pages 49–62. ACM (2010).
. Ashwin Patti, Byung-Gon Chun, Mayur Naik, Petros Maniatis, and Sunghwan Ihm, Clonecloud: elastic execution between mobile device and cloud. In Proceedings of the sixth conference on Computer systems, pages 301–314. ACM, (2011).
. Niroshinie Fernando, Seng W. Loke, Wenny Rahayu, Mobile cloud computing: A survey, Future Generation Computer Systems, Elsevier, online 6 June (2012).
. C. Mascolo, S. Zachariadis, W. Emmerich, Satin: a component model for mobile self organisation, in: R. Meersman, Z. Tari (Eds.), On the Move to Meaningful Internet Systems 2004: CoopIS, DOA, and ODBASE, in: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 3191, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 1303–1311 (2004).
. E. Miluzzo, R. Caceres, and Y. Chen, “Vision: mClouds - Computing On Clouds of Mobile Devices,” in Proceedings of the third ACM workshop on Mobile cloud computing and services, UK (2012).
. J. Flinn, M. Satyanarayanan, S. Park, Balancing performance, energy, and quality in pervasive computing, in: Proceedings of the 22nd International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems, IEEE, pp. 217–226 (2002).
. M. Satyanarayanan, R. Balan, S. Park, T. Okoshi, “Tactics-based remote execution for mobile computing,” in: Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Mobile Systems, Applications and Services, ACM, pp. 273–286 (2003).
. H. Bal, N. Palmer, R. Kemp, T. Kielmann, Cuckoo: a computation offloading framework for smartphones, in: Proceedings of The Second International Conference on Mobile Computing, Applications, and Services, MobiCASE, (2010).
. A. Patti, B.-G. Chun, M. Naik, P. Maniatis, S. Ihm, Clonecloud: elastic execution between mobile device and cloud, in: Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Computer Systems, EuroSys’11, ACM, New York, NY, USA, pp. 301–314 (2011).
. Jicheng Hu, Qingfeng Liu, Xie Jian, “An Optimized Solution for Mobile Environment Using Mobile Cloud Computing”, Google Scholar, Wuhan 430079,China, the National Innovative Project (2009).
. C. P. Chang, S. C. Wang, K.Q. Yan, Y. P. Lin, “Enhance the Stability of MANET by Using Mobile Agent”, Proceedings of the First International Conference on Scalable Information Systems, Hong Kong (2006).
. IEEE Association, “IEEE Standard for Information technology– Telecommunications and information exchange between systems Local and metropolitan area networks–Speciﬁc requirements Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Speciﬁcations,” IEEE Std 802.11-2012, pp. 1–2793 (2012).
. C. Poellabauer and P. Mitra, “Emergency response in smartphone-based Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks,” in IEEE Int. Conference on Communications (ICC). IEEE, pp. 6091–6095, (2012).
. C.-M. Lin, K. Boussetta, J.-R. Jiang, M. Abdallah, T. Y. Huang, and W. T. Ooi, “SYMA: A Synchronous Multihop Architecture for Wireless Ad Hoc Multiplayer Games,” in IEEE 17th Int. Conference on Parallel and Distributed Systems, (2011).
. A. Le, A. Markopoulou, C. Fragouli, L. Keller, “MicroPlay: a networking framework for local multiplayer games,” in Proc. of the 1st ACM Int. Workshop on Mobile gaming-MobileGames, New York, USA, (2012).
. H. Scholten, P. J. Havinga, O. Turkes, “BLESSED with Opportunistic Beacons: A Lightweight Data Dissemination Model for Smart Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks,” in Proc. of the 10th ACM MobiCom Workshop on Challenged Networks (CHANTS ’15). ACM Press, (2015).
. A. Sathiaseelan and J. Crowcroft, “Internet on the move: Challenges and solutions,” SIGCOMM CCR, vol. 43, no. 1, (2012).
. OSGi Alliance Staff, “OSGi Alliance,” http://www.osgi.org/Main/ HomePage, (2013).
. The Apache Software Foundation Staff, “Apache Hadoop!” http:// hadoop.apache.org/, (2013).
. D. Srikrishna and R. Krishnamoorthy, “SocialMesh: Can networks of meshed smartphones ensure public access to twitter during an attack?” IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 50, no. 6, pp. 99–105, (2012).
How to Cite
Authors who submit papers with this journal agree to the following terms.