The Factors That Affect Undergraduates’ Attitudes Towards Computer-Based English Language Exams: A Case Study of An-Najah National University, Palestine


  • Asil Ateeri Language Centre, An-Najah National University, Nablus, Palestine


Factors, Attitudes, Computer-based Exams, Undergraduates, Summative Assessment, English language Exams, Computer Skills, Gender


This paper investigates the impact of undergraduates’ gender, major, academic year level, computer skills, and level of English on their attitude towards computer-based English language exams at An-Najah National University. A simple random sample of 312 females and 201 males were chosen from all of the 49 classes of an English language core requirement course (English Language Course I) to fill in a paper-based group-administrated questionnaire consisting of 27 items. Five females and four males were randomly selected to participate in a focus group discussion. The data collected from the questionnaire was statistically analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), and a probability of p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. The data collected from the discussion was analysed thematically. While the statistical analyses revealed statistically significant differences in attitude towards computer-based English language exams due to gender, computer skills, major, and academic year level, no statistically significant differences were found due to their level of English. Female students, first-year students, those whose computer skills are low, and those who lack experience with computers need to receive more training in computer-based exams to reduce their anxiety and make the exams fairer to all groups.


A. Ateeri. “The Attitude of Undergraduates Towards Computer-based English Language Exams: A Case Study of An-Najah National University, Palestine.” International Journal of Computer (IJC), vol. 46, pp. 53–62, Feb. 2023.

F. Alkhezzi. “The Effect of Test Anxiety on the Performance in E-Exams: A Correlational Study on Kuwait University Students.” International Journal for Research in Education, vol. 33, pp. 1-29, Jan. 2013.

K. A. Da'asin. “Attitude of Ash-Shobak University College Students to E-Exam for Intermediate University Degree in Jordan.” Journal of Education and Practice, vol. 7, pp. 10-17, 2016.

M. A. Uddin, F. Ahmar, and M. N. Alraja. “E-examinations for Management Students in Oman.” International Journal of Applied Business and Economic Research, vol. 14, pp. 87-95, 2016.

I. Yurdabakan and C. Uzunkavak. “Primary School Students’ Attitudes Towards Computer-based Testing and Assessment in Turkey.” Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education, vol. 13, pp. 177-188, Jul. 2012.

M. Al-Khayat. “Students and Instructors' Attitudes toward Computerized Tests in Business Faculty at the Main Campus of Al-Blaqa Applied University.” An-Najah University Journal for Research (Humanities), vol. 31, pp. 2041- 2072, 2017.

A. Broos. “Gender and Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) Anxiety: Male Self-assurance and Female Hesitation.” Cyberpsychology & Behavior, vol. 8, pp. 21-31, 2005.

C. Comber, A. Colley, D. J. Hargreaves, and L. Dorn. "The Effects of Age, Gender and Computer Experience upon Computer Attitudes." Educational Research, vol. 39, pp. 123-133, 1997.

A. Durndell, Z. Haag, and H. Laithwaite. "Computer Self Efficacy and Gender: A Cross Cultural Study of Scotland and Romania." Personality and Individual Differences, vol. 28, pp. 1037-1044, Jun. 2000.

S. Liaw. “An Internet Survey for Perceptions of Computers and the World Wide Web: Relationship, Prediction, and Difference.” Computers in Human Behavior, vol. 18, pp. 17-35, 2002.

A. Mitra, S. Lenzmeier, T. Steffensmeier, R. Avon, N. Qu, and M. Hazen. “Gender and Computer Use in an Academic Institution: Report from a Longitudinal Study.” Journal of Educational Computing Research, vol. 23, pp. 67-84, 2000.

B. J. Young. “Gender Differences in Student Attitudes toward Computers.” Journal of Research on Computing in Education, vol. 33, pp. 204-216, 2000.

C. Tsai, S. Lin, and M. Tsai. “Developing an Internet Attitude Scale for High School Students.” Computers & Education, vol. 37, pp. 41-51, 2001.

M. Hillier. “The Very Idea of e-Exams: Student (Pre)conceptions,” in Rhetoric and Reality: Critical Perspectives on Educational Technology. B. Hegarty, J. McDonald, and S.-K. Loke (Eds.). Dunedin: Ascilite, 2014, pp. 77-88.

V. Terzis and A. A. Economides. “Computer-based Assessment: Gender Differences in Perceptions and Acceptance.” Computers in Human Behavior, vol. 27, pp. 2108-2122, 2011.

A. Durndell and Z. Haag. “Computer Self-efficacy, Computer Anxiety, Attitudes Towards the Internet and Reported Experience with the Internet, by Gender, in an East European Sample.” Computers in Human Behavior, vol. 18, pp. 521-535, 2002.

Y. Kim. “Gender Role and the Use of University Library Website Resources: A Social Cognitive Theory Perspective.” Journal of Information Science, vol. 36, pp. 603-617, 2010.

P. Schumacher and J. Morahan-Martin. “Gender, Internet and Computer Attitudes and Experiences.” Computers in Human Behavior, vol. 17, pp. 95-110, 2001.

I. Vekiri and A. Chronaki. “Gender Issues in Technology Use: Perceived Social Support, Computer Self-efficacy and Value Beliefs, and Computer Use Beyond School.” Computers & Education, vol. 51, pp. 1392-1404, 2008.

A. Alnawaiseh and S. Alnawaiseh. “The Attitude of Information Technology Students in Mutah University Towards Computerized Exams.” European Scientific Journal, vol.11, pp. 416-428, Dec. 2015.

M. Jamil. “Perceptions of University Students regarding Computer Assisted Assessment.” Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, vol. 11, pp. 267-277, Jul. 2012.




How to Cite

Ateeri, A. . (2023). The Factors That Affect Undergraduates’ Attitudes Towards Computer-Based English Language Exams: A Case Study of An-Najah National University, Palestine. International Journal of Computer (IJC), 47(1), 36–45. Retrieved from